Multiple-Stage Launch Vehicle Ascent
The multiple-stage launch vehicle ascent optimal control problem is stated as follows. Maximize the cost functional
subject in each phase to the dynamic constraints
the control equality path constraint
the phase continuity (linkage) constraints
and the boundary conditions
The solution to the multiple-stage launch vehicle ascent problem obtained using GPOPS-II with the NLP solver SNOPT is shown in the figures below.
Image Courtesy of NASA.